Σάββατο, 29 Σεπτεμβρίου 2012

Lesbian and Gay Parents and Their Children: Summary of Research Findings




Patterson, C. J., & Wainright, J.L. (in press). Adolescents with same-sex parents: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. In Brodzinsky, D., Pertman, A., & Kunz, D. (Eds.), Lesbian and gay adoption: A new American reality. New York: Oxford University Press.



Da un campione complessivo di 12.105 adolescenti pescati a caso nelle scuole americane è stato individuato un sottocampione di quelli con coppie di genitori omosessuali, che erano 44.
I dati sono stati raccolti tramite
• Interviste e Questionari self-report somministrati a scuola, volti ad indagare:
o –Adattamento psicosociale.(depressive symptoms, anxiety, self esteem),
o –Funzionamento scolastico (school grades, trouble at school, and school connectedness).
o –Variabili familiari e relazionali (Adolescents’ reports of their perceptions of parental warmth, caring from adults and peers, their integration into their neighborhood, and their autonomy).
o –Attrazioni, comportamenti e relazioni romantiche. (Adolescents’ romantic attractions, relationships, and behaviors were assessed with individual items).
• Questionari compilati dai genitori sul rapporto con i figli.
È stato così possibile paragonare tutti questi aspetti con quelli dei pari cresciuti in famiglie eterosessuali che erano stati rilevati nell’ambito dello stesso studio, non trovando nessuna differenza significativa. I 44 adolescenti cresciuti in famiglie omogenitoriali si sono mostrati complessivamente nella fascia più funzionale del campione. Il disagio si è mostrato correlato alla qualità delle relazioni e non al sesso dei genitori.



US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (1986-1992)
“Between 1986 and 1992,154 prospective lesbian mothers volunteered for a study that was designed to follow planned lesbian families from the index children’s conception until they reached adult- hood. Data for the current report were gathered through interviews and questionnaires that were completed by 78 index offspring when they were 10 and 17 years old and through interviews and Child Behav- ior Checklists that were completed by their mothers at corresponding times. The study is ongoing, with a 93% retention rate to date.
According to their mothers’ reports, the 17-year-old daughters and sons of lesbian mothers were rated significantly higher in social, school/academic, and total competence and significantly lower in social problems, rule-breaking, aggressive, and externalizing prob- lem behavior than their age-matched counterparts in Achenbach’s nor- mative sample of American youth. Within the lesbian family sample, no Child Behavior Checklist differences were found among adolescent offspring who were conceived by known, as-yet-unknown, and perma- nently unknown donors or between offspring whose mothers were still together and offspring whose mothers had separated.
Adolescents who have been reared in lesbian-mother families since birth demonstrate healthy psychological adjustment. These findings have implications for the clinical care of adolescents and for pediatricians who are consulted on matters that pertain to same-sex parenting.”

Bos, H.M.W., Gartrell, N.K. (2010). Adolescents of the US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: the impact of having a known or an unknown donor on the stability of psychological adjustment. Human Reproduction. doi:10.1093/humrep/deq359.

Gartrell, N., Bos, H. (2010). US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Psychological Adjustment of 17-Year-Old Adolescents. Pediatrics. 126(1):1-9.

Bos H.M.W., Gartrell N., Van Balen F., Peyser H., et al. (2008). Children in planned lesbian families: A cross-cultural comparison between the USA and the Netherlands. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 78(2):211-219.

Gartrell N., Rodas C., Deck A., et al. (2006). The USA national lesbian family study: 5. Interviews with mothers of ten-year-olds. Feminism & Psychology. 16(2):175-192.

Gartrell N., Deck A., Rodas C., et al. (2005). The national lesbian family study: 4. Interviews with the 10-year-old children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 75:518-524.

Gartrell N., Banks A., Reed N., Hamilton J., et al. (2000). The national lesbian family study: 3. Interviews with mothers of five-year-olds. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 70:542-548.

Gartrell N., Banks A., Hamilton J., et al. (1999). The national lesbian family study: 2. Interviews with mothers of toddlers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 69:362-369.

Gartrell N, Hamilton J, Banks A, et al. (1996). The national lesbian family study: 1. Interviews with prospective mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 66:272-281.

Patterson, C. J. (2005). Lesbian and Gay Parents and Their Children: Summary of Research Findings. In Lesbian and Gay Parenting: A Resource for Psychologists (2 Edition). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association

È la meta-analisi più recente commissionata dall’American Psychological Association che conta il riferimento a più di 150 pubblicazioni sull’argomento (a partire dal 1972). Stabilisce che non esiste evidenza scientifica di differenze né nell’incidenza di disturbi psicologici o disturbi dell’identità di genere, né nel manifestarsi di un orientamento omosessuale,.

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