Παρασκευή, 5 Ιουνίου 2015

Same-sex marriage and children’s well-being: Research roundup

same-sex parents (iStock)
(iStock)
A leading issue in the same-sex marriage debate is the welfare of children raised by same-sex parents. How might a child’s general well-being be affected by these primary caregivers versus having a more traditional family? The question is central to the defense strategy of supporters of Michigan’s ban on gay marriage, which was challenged by a lawsuit and went to trial in March 2014. A federal judge overturned the state’s ban, but the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the right of Michigan and three other states to ban same-sex marriage. The issue may be decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, which will rule on several related cases in the summer of 2015.
The following are scholarly research papers and studies on psychosocial and educational outcomes for children raised by same-sex parents. For an overall exploration of the challenges and potential lines of criticism in this field, see “Gay & Lesbian Parenting,” a review of the research literature by the American Psychological Association.
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“Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief”
Manning, Wendy D.; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther. Population Research and Policy Review, August 2014, Vol. 33, Issue 4, 485-502. doi: 10.1007/s11113-014-9329-6.
Abstract: “Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California’s voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different- sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability.”

“Promoting the Well-Being of Children Whose Parents Are Gay or Lesbian”
2013 study from Tufts University, Boston Medical Center and the Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health published in Pediatrics.
Abstract: “Extensive data available from more than 30 years of research reveal that children raised by gay and lesbian parents have demonstrated resilience with regard to social, psychological, and sexual health despite economic and legal disparities and social stigma. Many studies have demonstrated that children’s well-being is affected much more by their relationships with their parents, their parents’ sense of competence and security, and the presence of social and economic support for the family than by the gender or the sexual orientation of their parents. Lack of opportunity for same-gender couples to marry adds to families’ stress, which affects the health and welfare of all household members.”

“U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Psychological Adjustment of 17-Year-Old Adolescents”2010 study from the University of California-San Francisco, the University of California-Los Angeles and the University of Amsterdam published in Pediatrics.
Findings: “The 17-year-old daughters and sons of lesbian mothers were rated significantly higher in social, school/academic, and total competence and significantly lower in social problems, rule-breaking, aggressive, and externalizing problem behavior than their age-matched counterparts… Within the lesbian family sample, no Child Behavior Checklist differences were found among adolescent offspring who were conceived by known, as-yet-unknown, and permanently unknown donors or between offspring whose mothers were still together and offspring whose mothers had separated… Adolescents who have been reared in lesbian-mother families since birth demonstrate healthy psychological adjustment.”

“Nontraditional Families and Childhood Progress Through School”2010 research by Stanford University published in Demography.
Findings: “Children of same-sex couples are as likely to make normal progress through school as the children of most other family structures… the advantage of heterosexual married couples is mostly due to their higher socioeconomic status. Children of all family types (including children of same-sex couples) are far more likely to make normal progress through school than are children living in group quarters (such as orphanages and shelters).”

“Children’s Gender Identity in Lesbian and Heterosexual Two-Parent Families”2009 research from the University of Amsterdam and New York State Psychiatric Institute published in Sex Roles.
Findings: “Children in lesbian families felt less parental pressure to conform to gender stereotypes, were less likely to experience their own gender as superior and were more likely to be uncertain about future heterosexual romantic involvement. No differences were found on psychosocial adjustment. Gender typicality, gender contentedness and anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement were significant predictors of psychosocial adjustment in both family types.”

“Parent-Child Interaction Styles Between Gay and Lesbian Parents and Their Adopted Children”2007 study from Florida State University published in the Journal of GLBT Family Studies.
Findings: “Gay and lesbian adoptive parents in this sample fell into the desirable range of the parenting scale and their children have strength levels equal to or exceeding the scale norms. Finally, various aspects of parenting style significantly predicted the adoptive parents’ view of their child’s level of care difficulty which subsequently predicted the type and level of strengths assessed within their adopted child.”

“Meta-Analysis of Developmental Outcomes for Children of Same-Sex and Heterosexual Parents”
2008 metastudy from Michigan State University published in the Journal of GLBT Family Studies.
Findings: “Analyses revealed statistically significant effect size differences between groups for one of the six outcomes: parent-child relationship. Results confirm previous studies in this current body of literature, suggesting that children raised by same-sex parents fare equally well to children raised by heterosexual parents.”

“Pychosocial Adjustment Among Children Conceived Via Donor Insemination by Lesbian and Heterosexual Mothers”1998 research from the University of Virgina published in Child Development.
Findings: “Children [developed] in normal fashion, and that their adjustment was unrelated to structural variables such as parental sexual orientation or the number of parents in the household. These results held true for teacher reports as well as for parent reports. Variables associated with family interactions and processes were, however, significantly related to indices of children’s adjustment. Parents who were experiencing higher levels of parenting stress, higher levels of interparental conflict, and lower levels of love for each other had children who exhibited more behavior problems.”

Keywords: gender, research roundup, gay issues, children, parenting, LGBT, gay issues

Writers:  and  | April 12, 2015
- See more at: http://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/gender-society/same-sex-marriage-children-well-being-research-roundup#sthash.rfGzVoGh.dpuf




Scientists agree there is no evidence children of same-sex couples are negatively impacted



A new study from the University of Colorado Denver finds that scientists agree that children of same-sex parents experience ‘no difference’ on a range of social and behavioral outcomes compared to children of heterosexual or single parents.
The study was led by Jimi Adams, an associate professor in the Department of Health and Behavioral Studies at CU Denver College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, and published this month in Social Science Research.
The research comes at a time when the U.S. Supreme Court is determining whether the Constitution requires marriage equality. In the case, Obergefell v. Hodges, courts are using social science research to shore up arguments for and against gay marriage. Adams’ study provides evidence against the idea that children of same-sex couples suffer disadvantages.
The study examined thousands of peer-reviewed articles referencing same-sex parenting for patterns in citation of work by other researchers. Adams found that over time, the articles began to cite the same research which supported the ‘no difference’ conclusion.
To determine if and when scientific consensus had been achieved, Adams systematically examined citation networks to find shifts in content. By 1990, he found a developing consensus among researchers about the effect of same-sex parenting. And by 2000, he discovered that researchers had reached ‘overwhelming’ consensus on the issue.
Adams co-authored the study with Ryan Light in the Department of Sociology at the University of Oregon. Adams and Light believe their approach can provide courts with an accessible and objective measure of scientific consensus for application to a range of legal questions.
‘As same-sex marriage has been debated in courts across the country, there has been the lingering question about the effects of same-sex parenting on children,’ explained Adams. ‘I wanted to analyze the research from the past decades to determine if there was consensus amongst researchers about that effect. I found overwhelming evidence that scientists agree that there is not a negative impact to children of same-sex couples.’


Αν δε γνωρίζεις μην τοποθετείσαι! Εκτίθεσαι!
Όλες οι επιστημονικές/ακαδημαϊκές έρευνες (των τελευταίων 30 χρόνων!) έδειξαν το αυτονόητο! Δε παίζει ρόλο το γεγονός πως τα παιδιά μεγαλώνουν σε μια οικογένεια με ομόφυλους γονείς (το χαρακτηρίζουν μάλιστα άσχετο και επουσιώδες όσον αφορά το well being του παιδιού!) αλλά το κοινωνικοοικονομικό τους επίπεδο, η σχέση των γονέων μεταξύ τους αλλά και με τα παιδιά τους (...όπως εξάλλου συμβαίνει στις οικογένειες με ετεροφυλόφιλους γονείς!).
Πέραν τούτου, τα παιδιά αυτά είναι τόσο προσαρμοστικά στο περιβάλλον, στο σχολείο, στην κοινωνία εν γένει όπως και τα παιδιά από ετεροφυλόφιλους γονείς, εν αντιθέσει με τα παιδιά που μεγάλωσαν ή διέμεναν για Χ χρονική περίοδο σε ορφανοτροφεία ή σε προσωρινές στέγες (e.g., shelters and temporary foster parents).
Το εντυπωσιακό μάλιστα είναι πως σε αρκετές περιπτώσεις τα παιδιά από ομόφυλους γονείς επιδείκνυαν ευρύτερες μαθησιακές ικανότητες, προσαρμοστικότητα με χαμηλότερο δείκτη επιθετικότητας και αναπτυγμένη αίσθηση πειθαρχείας σε σχέση με τους συνομήλικούς τους από ετεροφυλόφιλους γονείς!
Η έρευνα είναι απόλυτη στα συμπεράσματα της και προέρχεται από αξιόπιστα αλλά και IVY LEAGUE πανεπιστήμια της Αμερικής!

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